Nova A.
Nova A.

Understanding Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research - A Complete Guide

9 min read

Published on: Jul 12, 2021

Last updated on: Jan 30, 2024

qualitative vs. quantitative research

When it comes to writing a research paper, there are two main approaches: qualitative and quantitative.

Both qualitative and quantitative research have their advantages and uses. Understanding the differences between them is essential to choosing the right research method for your study. 

This blog explore these types of research methods and the differences between them. You’ll also get some real-life examples to help you determine which approach is best for your project..

Read on to learn about qualitative vs quantitative research.

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Qualitative vs Quantitative Research Comparison: What’s the Difference?

The two research methods differ in the way they collect data, analyze it, and reach conclusions.

  • Qualitative data collection involves methods such as interviews, focus groups, and observations. The data collected is typically non-numerical and is analyzed through techniques such as content analysis, thematic analysis, and narrative analysis.

The goal of qualitative research is to gain an in-depth understanding of a particular phenomenon. Often through exploring the experiences and perspectives of participants.

  • Meanwhile, quantitative data collection involves collecting numerical data through methods such as surveys and experiments. The measurable data is analyzed through statistical techniques to identify patterns and relationships between variables.

The goal of quantitative research is to measure and quantify a particular phenomenon. Often with the aim of making predictions or generalizations about a larger population.

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Here is a table that clarifies the major differences between qualitative and quantitative research.

Qualitative Research

Quantitative Research


Explore and Understand a phenomenon

Explore causal relationships between variables

Test theories and hypotheses 

Sample Size

Small, Focused


Data Collection Methods

  • In-depth Interviews
  • Focus groups 
  • Observation
  • Surveys 
  • Experiments

Type of Data

Textual, Discursive

Numerical. Statistical

Analysis Methods

Categorizing & interpreting data to identify themes and patterns

Statistical analysis to test hypotheses and draw conclusions


Emphasizes internal validity 

(extent to which research accurately measures what it claims to measure)

Emphasizes external validity 

(extent to which research findings can be generalized to a larger population)


Most commonly used in Social Sciences and Humanities

Commonly used in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics), and sometimes also in Social Sciences

Expert Tip

Just getting started with research? Head to our types of research blog to get a complete overview.

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Questions

Your research questions reflect the direction and methodology of your research project.  

The research questions asked in quantitative and qualitative studies are different. Let’s take a look at how research questions for qualitative and quantitative research are formulated.

Qualitative Research Questions

Qualitative research questions often focus on “how” or “why” something occurs, rather than measuring or quantifying it.

Examples of Qualitative Research Questions

  • How do students experience online learning during the pandemic?
  • What are the factors that influence employee motivation in a small business?

Quantitative Research Questions

Quantitative research questions often focus on what, how much, or how many of something. These questions have clear variables and seek to uncover any relationships between these variables.

Examples of Quantitative Research Questions 

  • How does the age of a driver affect the likelihood of being involved in a car accident?
  • What is the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover in the banking industry?

Here is a short video explaining the key differences between the two methods:

Let’s explore each type of research methodology in-depth. Knowing the unique qualities of each one will help you better understand their differences.

Qualitative Research - Characteristics, Examples, Usage, Strengths and Limitations 

Qualitative research is a research method that aims to understand the subjective experiences of individuals or groups in their natural settings. 

Qualitative research typically involves gathering data through methods like interviews, focus groups, and observation. It analyzes data through coding, interpreting, and categorizing it to identify themes and patterns.

Characteristics of Qualitative Research

Here are the features of qualitative research that differentiates it from quantitative research:

  • Exploration of complex phenomena: Qualitative research is used to explore complex phenomena, such as emotions, beliefs, and experiences that cannot be easily quantified.
  • In-depth analysis: Qualitative research involves in-depth analysis of a few participants rather than a large sample size.
  • Contextualization: Qualitative research emphasizes understanding the social context in which the phenomena occurs.

Examples of Qualitative Research Methods

There are different methods within qualitative research suitable for different research goals. Here are a few examples:

  • Interviews: Interviews involve open-ended questions that allow participants to share their experiences and perspectives.
  • Focus groups: Focus groups are small group discussions that allow researchers to explore participants' opinions and attitudes towards a particular topic.
  • Observation: Observation involves direct observation of participants in their natural setting, allowing researchers to gain insights into behavior and experiences.

Strengths and Limitations of Qualitative Research

There are several advantages that come with qualitative research, including:

  • Depth of understanding: Qualitative research provides rich and detailed information about complex phenomena that cannot be captured through quantitative methods.
  • Flexibility: Qualitative research allows researchers to adapt their methods to the needs of the participants. It can lead to more natural and accurate data.
  • Insights into context: Qualitative research provides insights into the social context in which the phenomena occurs. This is useful in understanding the larger social and cultural implications of the phenomena.

However, there are also some limitations to qualitative research. For instance, 

  • Lack of Generalizability: Qualitative research uses a small sample size, which limits the application of the findings and how much they can be generalized.
  • Subjectivity: Qualitative research involves subjective interpretation of data, which can introduce bias into the analysis.
  • Time-consuming: Qualitative research is often more time-consuming than quantitative research due to the detailed analysis required.

When to Use Qualitative Research

Qualitative research is best suited for exploring subjective and social phenomena. It is more suitable for understanding the perspectives and experiences of individuals or groups. 

It is also useful in situations where little is known about the topic or the researcher wants to generate hypotheses for further investigation. 

In addition, qualitative research is also used where quantitative data is not available. Or, when it is necessary to complement quantitative data with more in-depth qualitative analysis.

Quantitative Research 

Quantitative research is a research method that aims to measure and quantify phenomena through numerical data and statistical analysis.

It typically involves gathering data through methods like surveys and experiments. Then, analyzing the data using statistical methods to identify patterns and relationships between variables.

Characteristics of Quantitative Research 

Quantitative research is defined by the following characteristics:

  • Objective Measurement: Quantitative research aims to measure and quantify phenomena objectively and standardized.
  • Large Sample Size: Quantitative research typically involves gathering data from large sample sizes to ensure statistical significance.
  • Statistical Analysis: Quantitative research involves statistical analysis to identify patterns and relationships between variables.

Examples of Quantitative Research Methods 

Here are some of the most commonly used quantitative research methods:

  • Surveys: Surveys involve asking participants a set of standardized questions and analyzing the responses to identify patterns and relationships.
  • Experiments: Experiments involve manipulating one or more variables and measuring the effect on another variable to identify cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Content analysis: Content analysis involves analyzing written or visual media to identify patterns and relationships between variables.

Strengths and Limitations of Quantitative Research

Quantitative research methods often lead to very valuable findings. Here are some more benefits of using quantitative research.

  • Objectivity: Quantitative research provides objective measurements that can be analyzed statistically, which reduces the potential for bias.
  • Verifiability: Quantitative research involves gathering data from a large sample size. This increases the statistical power and the verifiability of the study.
  • Generalizability: Quantitative research aims to provide generalizable findings that can be applied to larger populations.

Even though it has several advantages over the qualitative method, it also has several limitations. These include:

  • Limited Understanding of Context: Quantitative research only provides numerical data, but it does not provide insights into the context in which the phenomena occur.
  • Limited Depth of Understanding: Quantitative research only reveals statistical relationships between variables. It does not explain the phenomena and does not provide a deep understanding.
  • Potential for Bias: The data collection and analysis processes could be subtly affected by personal and institutional biases. This can lead to biased results.

When to Use Quantitative Research

Quantitative research is best suited for testing a hypothesis. It should be used in situations where a cause-and-effect relationship between variables needs to be identified. 

Additionally, it is helpful when the researcher wants to generalize the findings to a larger population. 

Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research Examples

Here are some examples of qualitative and quantitative research to help you get an even better understanding.  

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To sum up, 

Choosing the right form of research - qualitative or quantitative - depends on the research problem and the goals of the research project. 

Qualitative research explores experiences, perspectives, and meanings related to a particular phenomenon. On the other hand, quantitative research aims to measure and quantify, often to make predictions or generalizations. 

By getting help from an AI essay generator, you can select an appropriate approach to achieve your research objectives. 

Having difficulty with your research project? Don’t worry! Get professional assistance from! 

Our experienced research writers have a deep understanding of various research methodologies. They are your best choice for getting help with your research project. With our reliable research writing service, you can rest assured that your paper will be. 

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Nova A.


Nova A. (Literature, Marketing)

As a Digital Content Strategist, Nova Allison has eight years of experience in writing both technical and scientific content. With a focus on developing online content plans that engage audiences, Nova strives to write pieces that are not only informative but captivating as well.

As a Digital Content Strategist, Nova Allison has eight years of experience in writing both technical and scientific content. With a focus on developing online content plans that engage audiences, Nova strives to write pieces that are not only informative but captivating as well.

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